Blockchain

Crypto Scare: Is the Hype Settling Down?

by Sandeep Kumar

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Crypto Volatility Index (CVI) hit a near one-year high of 127.03 on May 12th. The value of Coinbase, a big bitcoin exchange, has plummeted. A cryptocurrency that advertised itself as a reliable medium of exchange has gone bankrupt. A drop in cryptocurrency values has wiped away more than $300 Bn. The decline in cryptocurrencies is part of a broader shift away from riskier assets, which has been fueled by rising interest rates, inflation, and economic uncertainty resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. These reasons have exacerbated a “pandemic hangover” that began when life in the United States began to return to normal, damaging the stock values of companies like Zoom and Netflix, which profited during the lockdowns. However, crypto’s collapse is more severe than the stock market’s overall decline. While the S&P 500 has lost 18% this year, the price of Bitcoin has plunged 40% in the same time. Bitcoin has dropped 20% in the last five days alone, compared to a 5% drop in the S&P 500. Let us have a look at the kind of impact the crypto slump is creating on various stakeholders.

How the fall of TerraUSD and Luna has created panic?

The crypto shock occurred primarily after the sudden crash of the stable coin TerraUSD and Luna token. For the past six months, investors bought UST in order to profit from Anchor, a borrowing and lending platform which offered a 20% yield to anyone who bought UST and lent it to the protocol. The idea was criticized as it was likened to a Ponzi scheme which would not be successful. Karma hit the founder, Do Kwon, hard enough who is known for calling out critics as “poor”. Former Terra employees and retail investors in the crypto are holding the Kwon responsible for the losses. While he is still optimistic about his plans to revive Terra, Kwon is facing some major backlash in the form of lawsuits, fines and penalties.

Since May 10th, when TerraUSD and Luna began to show indications of difficulty, cryptocurrencies used by South Korean gaming firms for in-game purchases and trading have experienced erratic trading. As of then, C2X, which formerly used TerraUSD as its main platform thanks to a collaboration with Terraform Labs, the firm behind TerraUSD, which is now depegged from the US dollar, was trading at roughly 1,000 won. According to industry officials, game firms with products that include virtual coins and other blockchain functionality are still on high alert due to the recent collapse of the TerraUSD and Luna cryptocurrencies.

Wemix, a cryptocurrency run by Wemade Co., the maker of the play-to-earn game “MIR4 Global,” dropped by 28 percent during the TerraUSD fiasco before recovering back to the 2,700 won level on May 16th. MBX, Netmarble Corp’s virtual currency, has also plummeted by more than 80% to roughly 11,000 won, compared to around 64,000 won on May 6. Klaytn, a blockchain platform established by internet behemoth Kakao Corp., was also down to roughly 500 won, down from over 650 won on May 10th. Companies are keeping a close eye on the newest developments and concerns in the Bitcoin market in general since a loss of user and investor confidence might jeopardize the gaming industry’s Blockchain ecosystem, which many companies have already extensively invested in. Several crypto exchanges including Coinbase, Binance, Coinswitch Kuber, CoinDCX, even temporarily delisted Luna coin.

Sector euphoria that fueled the NFT boom has given way to more pessimistic conditions, forcing the mostly speculative NFT market to face reality. NonFungible, an NFT data business, stated that transaction volume was down 47 percent in Q1 2022 compared to the previous quarter. The figures are even more dramatic when looking at daily average sales, which fell by 92 percent between September 2021 and April 2022. Such challenges are far from insurmountable. For an NFT market that has been weak on value proposition but strong on hype, a washout was always going to happen. This data will be seen by critics of NFTs as the beginning of the end for projects that have been marked by over-promises, rug pull scams, and flash over substance. A reduction in speculation is more likely to refocus entrepreneurs on adding clear value to digital assets. A more clearly defined use case with a highly motivated and well-capitalized stakeholder to assist drive forward development is required to propel innovation forward.

What to expect in the longer run?

The fall of USDT has reflected poorly over the entire stable coin industry. Developers created functional and safe algorithmic in order to make it less susceptible to government oversight and more resistant to inflation than fiat-backed stable coins. However, they have lost their peg and failed. Some crypto analyst even suggest that the idea of algorithmic stable coins will now be put to rest. On the other hand, despite the volatility in the crypto industry since the beginning of 2022, private equity and venture capital investment into the crypto and Web3 space have been optimistic. The recent shocker has led Terra’s major investors to decide whether to help bail the project out or pull back and escape. While Lightspeed Venture Partners, one of the investors of Luna token, is planning to double down specifically in infrastructure, DeFi and emerging use cases, there is a possibility that the DeFi hype may now calm down. Until economic growth and corporate earnings forecasts are altered, there will be a sluggish flow of fresh money into equities, commodities, bonds or cryptocurrency markets in the coming months.

The arising concerns due to the crashing crypto market have been drawing attention to the regulation of cryptocurrencies. From USA to India, public officials are calling out the need for a regulatory framework to guard against the volatility risks of crypto. The US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen has called for stable coin regulations to mitigate the risks, ensuring there are no gaps in the regulation. In India, experts are in a process to lay out tax policies for cryptocurrencies. However, naysayers believe that it could disturb the huge potential that the crypto industry brings in terms of intersection of blockchain, machine learning and job creation. Lack of clarity on policies is discouraging innovation in the sector and forcing job seekers to look for opportunities outside India where there are more crypto friendly policies.

A wake-up call for investors

There is no doubt that crypto is a volatile space. The crypto market has survived all this due to the underlying premise that the blockchain is a powerful tool that can change the way the next generation of digital products is built. However, some investors try to make quick money out of these volatile markets. Several people lost their entire life savings through crypto investments. It is advised that investors should research the projects, the technology and promoters before investing in tokens and not just follow returns blindly. Shocks like the recent one will act as a wake-up call and likely make investors mature. As per Sidharth Sogani, founder and CEO of Crebaco Global, a rating, research and intelligence firm focused on blockchain and crypto, more trouble is yet to come. He mentions that as for the crypto market is concerned, we might see a further down or a sideways movement for the next three to six months before it enters the bull market again.

So next time you make any investment decision, especially in a volatile market like crypto, be sure to be patient and do extensive research instead of running after quick returns.

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This article has been co-authored by Sayan Mitra and Tamanna Kapur, who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

The Metaverse Fad: Will the trend sustain in the future?

by Sandeep Kumar

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Today’s digital era is making several advancements and one such on-going development that is creating a buzz these days is metaverse. While there exists no perfect definition of the concept of metaverse as it is still emerging, it can be best described as seamless convergence of physical and digital lives, which creates a unified, virtual community where we can work, play, relax, socialize, or engage in commercial transactions.

As the concept of metaverse is developing and moving closer towards reality, . This includes Epic Games’ $1 Bn round being in the lead, other significant investments include funds raised by The Sandbox, Mythical Games, Niantic, among others. Even big tech players are placing their bets in the future of the digital world. The term ‘metaverse’ particularly gained popularity among the public after the social media giant, Facebook rebranded itself as ‘Meta’ to put focus on its strategy to build in the direction of metaverse. .

How different industry segments are growing in the virtual world?

Expected to build over a trillion-dollar economy, businesses across different industries are exploring opportunities in the metaverse space. The global gaming market is projected to reach over $218 Bn by 2023, with global player base growing over 3 billion during the same period. The use of AR & VR along with in-game assets have enhanced user experiences. Further it is estimated that estimates 

, is considered to be one of the most successful metaverse player already. The company currently has over 47 million daily active users (DAUs) and monetizes its user base through sale of its virtual currency — Robux (R$). Gaming companies are investing heavily in enhancing user experience by improving gamers’ virtual identity and avatars.

. As virtual game developers monetize from sale of in-game assets, it opens the door to social commerce and retail in the metaverse. Several physical retail brands are now looking forward to enter the meta-world by setting up virtual malls and stores. The immersive experience provided by these virtual stores could end up enhancing brand’s revenues. Research by virtual store platform, Obsess, suggests that 70% of the consumers who visited a virtual store ended up buying an item.

Source: The Hustle

Brands like Walmart, Adidas, Nike, etc. are planning to set up their virtual stores and some are even purchasing virtual land, which also gives rise to the commercial realty sector on the metaverse. . With current trends, we can even expect the virtual real estate market to facilitate land credit, mortgage, rental agreements, etc. in the future.

Apart from gaming, retail and real estate, Metaverse allows immersive experiences for users across many other industry segments, including education, music, aerospace, etc. While they are still in early stage, such segments have the capacity to grow big in the future.

Source: Goldman Sachs Research

Some exciting startups in the metaverse

1. Niantic Labs

· HQ: San Francisco, California, USA

· Total Funding: $770 Mn

· Last Round: Series D

· Valuation: $9 Bn

Started as an internal startup within Google, Niantic is an augmented reality company and also the developer of games like Pokémon GO. It aims to build a real world metaverse which will use technology to improve experience of the world as it has been known for thousands of years. The popular game Pokémon GO turned out to be so successful for the company that on an average it earned over $1 Bn per year from 2016–2020 and generated over $641 Mn in H1 2021 itself. The company is working on its Lightship platform that will attempt to incorporate the real world metaverse into products like Field Trip, Ingress, and Pokémon GO. It has also partnered with companies that provide hardware like AR glasses and microprocessors, that will help them to provide an amazing user experience.

2. Sky Mavis

· HQ: Vietnam

· Total Funding: $161 Mn

· Last Round: Series B

· Valuation: $3 Bn

Sky Mavis is the producer of Axie Infinity, which is the company’s flagship game built on Ethereum. It follows a play-to-earn model, where users are rewarded through NFTs. Earlier this year, Sky Mavis released a governance token (RON) on its Ethereum sidechain Ronin, which allows users to pay for DeFi features like community governance and future utility via staking through validators to earn rewards. As per the co-founder, within a month of Ronin’s release, Axie experienced a 300% increase in monthly NFT trading volume.

3. The Sandbox

· HQ: San Francisco, California, USA

· Total Funding: $95 Mn

· Last Round: Series B

The Sandbox offers a community-driven platform where creators can monetize voxel ASSETS and gaming experiences on the blockchain. Known for its virtual real estate marketplace, the platform has been successful in getting brands like The Walking Dead, Snoop Dogg, and Atari to buy their own virtual land. With about 2 million registered users, Sandbox already has 19,000 land owners. The Sandbox is committed towards building the idea of the metaverse as a continuous shared digital space.

4. Decentraland

· HQ: Genesis City, Metaverse

· Total Funding: $26 Mn

· Last Round: Venture Round

Decentraland provides a platform which uses Ethereum blockchain, where users can buy virtual plots of lands as NFTs through MANA cryptocurrency. Decentraland is scaling fast and its user base has increased by 3,300%. The demand for virtual land on the platform is increasing, which has also resulted in the rise of its crypto token MANA, appreciating by over 4,100% over last year. Financial institutions like JP Morgan, IMA Financial Group have already set up their plots on the platform.

5. MetaMall

· HQ: London, England, United Kingdom

· Total Funding: $4.6 Mn

· Last Round: Seed

Built on the Solana Blockchain network, Metamall is a decentralized mall on the metaverse where users can socialize, trade, and carry out business interactions through an immersive experience powered by VR technology. Metamall allows users to buy virtual real estate and earn token money by leasing, staking, advertising and developing it. It features separate zones for commercial properties to set up shops, showrooms and business interactions, along with lifestyle experiences such as casinos, clubs, VR games and NFT art galleries.

6. ByondXR

· HQ: New York, USA

· Total Funding: $7.5 Mn

· Last Round: Seed

ByondXR helps brands, retailers and wholesalers to create immersive metaverse e-commerce platforms for their customers. Till now ByondXR has created virtual stores for many luxury brands, including Armani, L’Oréal, Lancôme and La Roche-Posay, as well as household giants like P&G and Target. Although the company is still at an early stage, it aims to transform the future of retail industry.

FinTech supporting the Metaverse movement

As businesses evolve themselves to operate on the metaverse, fintech can provide a bridge for both personal and business interactions, by managing finances and transactions. Financial services companies like brokers, lenders, banks are looking forward to adopt metaverse initiatives to enhance their reach. which will offer a virtual banking branch and financial education. Looking at the limitless opportunities in this industry,  It is believed that for financial services, decentralized finance (DeFi) collateral management will come into play, which would be managed by decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO) rather than traditional finance companies.In the foreseeable future, we can expect more businesses trying to make practices of managing financial transactions supplied by fintech solutions similar to real life.

What the future holds?

In the long run, the aim of metaverse is to make it interoperable. What currently exists is the Web 2.0 version of the metaverse, where the users are restricted as they operate within a confined space as the companies collect huge amounts of user data for their innovation and enhancement. . This may take a while to achieve with the on-going debates around the credibility of Web 3.0. However, going forward we expect that apart from large-scale platforms, several companies will transform and evolve their business models in order to operate within the Metaverse.

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This article has been co-authored by Tamanna Kapur, who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

Upcoming Indian Unicorns: E-Commerce Startups with a Potential for Billion Dollar Valuation

by Sandeep Kumar

In India, around 48 startups have already made it to the unicorn club, as per CB Insights data. Well over $38.4 Bn has been raised till December 4th this year, with several of the rounds producing Indian unicorns in 2021. India will manage to get more than 100 unicorns by 2022, much earlier than the previewed estimation of 2023 reports in the past. The pace with which these companies are gaining valuations is truly remarkable. India’s pace of unicorn growth has surpassed that of China. The Indian economy is capitalizing on a host of international and national factors that are expected to create many more such companies.

We aim to identify and bring out such companies at an early stage so that the secondary’s investors can churn out greater returns. In this edition of Indian Soonicorns, we bring out some companies in the E-Commerce space that have complete potential to reach the billion-dollar mark in the future.

The Indian e-commerce industry has been on an upward growth trajectory

Let us now have a look at potential soonicorns that are likely to give high returns to their investors in the longer run.

1. Pepperfry

Rationale: Pepperfry is an online furniture and home décor shopping store. Pepperfry’s platform has expanded into both online and offline business. The company expects to be in the unicorn club soon in terms of valuation before IPO hits the market for 12 months. The total revenue increased by 27% to $33 Mn in FY20 as the brand has reached close to profitability last year, company’s focus has shifted from achieving profitability to becoming a high-growth company. Despite the intense rivalry it has experienced among all the other platforms researching this area, the online e-commerce company has managed to create a key position in the future industry’s market.

2. Freshtohome

Rationale: Freshtohome is a leader in leveraging AI-based technology and business innovation to bring a superior value proposition to customers and suppliers in a large market. The start-up, which clocked an annual recurring revenue of $85 Mn in FY20, aimed to hit $200 Mn in FY21. Freshtohome manages to sell nearly 10K tones of produce per year and has close to selling 95% qualified cohort retention and doubling every year. It has 12 lakh registered users. The pandemic helped accelerate the online purchase of meat products as consumers took to branded packaged items.

3. Trell

Rationale: Trell is a social-commerce platform for discovering lifestyles through videos in Indian Languages. It enables people to create visual collections of their lifestyle experiences. The social commerce platform has more than 100 Mn downloads and over 50 Mn monthly active users on its app. The start-up is in talks to raise $100 Mn funding, which could value the company between $600 and $800 Mn. A huge majority of people are unable to discover relevant material in their native language. Trell enters the picture at this point.

4. Magicpin

Rationale: Magicpin drives discovery to local retailers across various industries such as fashion, food & beverage, and grocery establishments. The company had a decent financial performance as it recorded a 2.6X jump in its turnover with a revenue of $28 Mn in FY20. It claims to be making $1 Bn in annual sales for its clients of 15 lakh merchants. The company haS a user base of more than 5 Mn and has expanded its footprints to around 200 cities in India. Magicpin also runs a SaaS product Orderhere.io where it helps merchants to go online in a few minutes. The product also provides logistic support through third-party logistics companies.

5. DealShare

Rationale: DealShare is an inventory-led platform that manages the supply chain and logistics in bigger cities. The start-up is in talks with new and existing investors to raise a fresh round at over $1.7 Bn valuation, which will be a more than 2.5X jump in the company’s valuation. DealShare has recorded a seven times growth YoY as its current GMV run rate is $40 Mn per annum, and is expecting top to reach $928 Mn by the year 2024. Currently, it operates in 40 cities of five states and has 20 warehouses. It will increase its footprints to 100 cities and 10 states and also build 200 warehouses by end of this year.

6. Mamaearth

Rationale: Gurugram-based startup Mamaearth is one of the most valued new-age D2C personal care brands that began with a focus on baby-care products, but has pivoted to become a personal care brand. The startup has expanded its product line by introducing 12 products at the beginning of 2020, which led to a 3.7X jump in the company’s total sales of around $66 Mn in FY21 as compared to the previous year’s $14 Mn, and is planning to double the sales by 100% this year. Its current revenue rate is around $100 Mn and is expected to have clock revenue of $265 Mn over the next three years.

India’s Potential to be a Game Changer in the E-Commerce Sector

If you are an investor interested in getting access to these and similar opportunities. Please reach out to us for understanding the investment process better. If you are a shareholder or an ESOP holder of such a company and are looking for liquidity solutions, feel free to connect with us as well. Our platform will provide you with seamless financing and investment journey. Follow us for more such updates.

. . . 

This article has been co-authored Vivek Kumar who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

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If you are an investor or shareholder and want more advice about the Pre-IPO secondary markets, please feel free to reach out at [email protected] for investment advice, or register for an account at Torre Capital.

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Crypto Scare: Is the Hype Settling Down?

by Sandeep Kumar

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Crypto Volatility Index (CVI) hit a near one-year high of 127.03 on May 12th. The value of Coinbase, a big bitcoin exchange, has plummeted. A cryptocurrency that advertised itself as a reliable medium of exchange has gone bankrupt. A drop in cryptocurrency values has wiped away more than $300 Bn. The decline in cryptocurrencies is part of a broader shift away from riskier assets, which has been fueled by rising interest rates, inflation, and economic uncertainty resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. These reasons have exacerbated a “pandemic hangover” that began when life in the United States began to return to normal, damaging the stock values of companies like Zoom and Netflix, which profited during the lockdowns. However, crypto’s collapse is more severe than the stock market’s overall decline. While the S&P 500 has lost 18% this year, the price of Bitcoin has plunged 40% in the same time. Bitcoin has dropped 20% in the last five days alone, compared to a 5% drop in the S&P 500. Let us have a look at the kind of impact the crypto slump is creating on various stakeholders.

How the fall of TerraUSD and Luna has created panic?

The crypto shock occurred primarily after the sudden crash of the stable coin TerraUSD and Luna token. For the past six months, investors bought UST in order to profit from Anchor, a borrowing and lending platform which offered a 20% yield to anyone who bought UST and lent it to the protocol. The idea was criticized as it was likened to a Ponzi scheme which would not be successful. Karma hit the founder, Do Kwon, hard enough who is known for calling out critics as “poor”. Former Terra employees and retail investors in the crypto are holding the Kwon responsible for the losses. While he is still optimistic about his plans to revive Terra, Kwon is facing some major backlash in the form of lawsuits, fines and penalties.

Since May 10th, when TerraUSD and Luna began to show indications of difficulty, cryptocurrencies used by South Korean gaming firms for in-game purchases and trading have experienced erratic trading. As of then, C2X, which formerly used TerraUSD as its main platform thanks to a collaboration with Terraform Labs, the firm behind TerraUSD, which is now depegged from the US dollar, was trading at roughly 1,000 won. According to industry officials, game firms with products that include virtual coins and other blockchain functionality are still on high alert due to the recent collapse of the TerraUSD and Luna cryptocurrencies.

Wemix, a cryptocurrency run by Wemade Co., the maker of the play-to-earn game “MIR4 Global,” dropped by 28 percent during the TerraUSD fiasco before recovering back to the 2,700 won level on May 16th. MBX, Netmarble Corp’s virtual currency, has also plummeted by more than 80% to roughly 11,000 won, compared to around 64,000 won on May 6. Klaytn, a blockchain platform established by internet behemoth Kakao Corp., was also down to roughly 500 won, down from over 650 won on May 10th. Companies are keeping a close eye on the newest developments and concerns in the Bitcoin market in general since a loss of user and investor confidence might jeopardize the gaming industry’s Blockchain ecosystem, which many companies have already extensively invested in. Several crypto exchanges including Coinbase, Binance, Coinswitch Kuber, CoinDCX, even temporarily delisted Luna coin.

Sector euphoria that fueled the NFT boom has given way to more pessimistic conditions, forcing the mostly speculative NFT market to face reality. NonFungible, an NFT data business, stated that transaction volume was down 47 percent in Q1 2022 compared to the previous quarter. The figures are even more dramatic when looking at daily average sales, which fell by 92 percent between September 2021 and April 2022. Such challenges are far from insurmountable. For an NFT market that has been weak on value proposition but strong on hype, a washout was always going to happen. This data will be seen by critics of NFTs as the beginning of the end for projects that have been marked by over-promises, rug pull scams, and flash over substance. A reduction in speculation is more likely to refocus entrepreneurs on adding clear value to digital assets. A more clearly defined use case with a highly motivated and well-capitalized stakeholder to assist drive forward development is required to propel innovation forward.

What to expect in the longer run?

The fall of USDT has reflected poorly over the entire stable coin industry. Developers created functional and safe algorithmic in order to make it less susceptible to government oversight and more resistant to inflation than fiat-backed stable coins. However, they have lost their peg and failed. Some crypto analyst even suggest that the idea of algorithmic stable coins will now be put to rest. On the other hand, despite the volatility in the crypto industry since the beginning of 2022, private equity and venture capital investment into the crypto and Web3 space have been optimistic. The recent shocker has led Terra’s major investors to decide whether to help bail the project out or pull back and escape. While Lightspeed Venture Partners, one of the investors of Luna token, is planning to double down specifically in infrastructure, DeFi and emerging use cases, there is a possibility that the DeFi hype may now calm down. Until economic growth and corporate earnings forecasts are altered, there will be a sluggish flow of fresh money into equities, commodities, bonds or cryptocurrency markets in the coming months.

The arising concerns due to the crashing crypto market have been drawing attention to the regulation of cryptocurrencies. From USA to India, public officials are calling out the need for a regulatory framework to guard against the volatility risks of crypto. The US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen has called for stable coin regulations to mitigate the risks, ensuring there are no gaps in the regulation. In India, experts are in a process to lay out tax policies for cryptocurrencies. However, naysayers believe that it could disturb the huge potential that the crypto industry brings in terms of intersection of blockchain, machine learning and job creation. Lack of clarity on policies is discouraging innovation in the sector and forcing job seekers to look for opportunities outside India where there are more crypto friendly policies.

A wake-up call for investors

There is no doubt that crypto is a volatile space. The crypto market has survived all this due to the underlying premise that the blockchain is a powerful tool that can change the way the next generation of digital products is built. However, some investors try to make quick money out of these volatile markets. Several people lost their entire life savings through crypto investments. It is advised that investors should research the projects, the technology and promoters before investing in tokens and not just follow returns blindly. Shocks like the recent one will act as a wake-up call and likely make investors mature. As per Sidharth Sogani, founder and CEO of Crebaco Global, a rating, research and intelligence firm focused on blockchain and crypto, more trouble is yet to come. He mentions that as for the crypto market is concerned, we might see a further down or a sideways movement for the next three to six months before it enters the bull market again.

So next time you make any investment decision, especially in a volatile market like crypto, be sure to be patient and do extensive research instead of running after quick returns.

– – – – – 

This article has been co-authored by Sayan Mitra and Tamanna Kapur, who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

Security Tokens: The next big trend which will revolutionize the Private Markets

by Sandeep Kumar

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Understanding Security Tokens

Blockchain is one of the most rapidly growing digital technologies in recent history, and its revolutionary decentralized model is being adopted by a wide range of industries. With the total Security Token market crossing $1 Bn in total volumes in July 2021, the discussion around how security tokens can transform and enable access to otherwise inaccessible private markets has been growing. Security tokens are essentially digital contracts that are blockchain-based protocols embedded in the network for fractions of any existing asset, such as real estate, a car, or corporate stock.

When investors use security tokens, their ownership stake is recorded on the blockchain ledger. With their ability to demonstrate value, security tokens have the potential to disrupt traditional financial markets in favor of newer, more hybrid blockchain models. They combine the merits of blockchain technology and regulated securities market, offering a wide range of financial assets including fractional ownership opportunities which allow investors to trade even the most illiquid assets like private shares, real estate, art, and even esoteric assets like vintage cars.

Owing to these benefits, there has been increasing adoption of STO in both public and private markets, so much so that some expect it to even outperform the traditional markets in the next 5–10 years.

Evolution of STOs and their Growth

The idea of STOs evolved from Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) which serve as utility tokens distributed to raise capital from investors. ICOs may even involve the use of virtual assets that are yet to be built on the ecosystem. Since the launch of Ethereum in 2014, ICOs were successfully issued for several securities till 2016. However, with its success, the number of scams in the ICO market also increased with about 80% of the ICO projects deemed to be a fraud. These issues led to the development of STOs as they provide a shield of compliance, regulation, and tokenization to digital assets transactions.

The roots for STOs were set up in 2017, and it started to gain traction in 2018 with a total of 28 STOs raising a collective value of $442 Mn during the year. As per PWC’s 6th ICO/ STO report, over $4 Bn was raised through 380 token offerings in the year 2020. Tokenization of assets and the subsequent market for STOs is expected to witness exponential growth in the future, growing at a CAGR of 59% during the period 2019–2030.

How Do Security Tokens Work?

Making a security token entails reserving and naming your token symbol, developing a token that can enforce regulatory compliance through programming, and minting and distributing the token to investors. When an off-chain traditional financial asset is represented on-chain, it becomes a tokenized security. Tokenizing an existing share certificate is a good example. An issuer creates a security token that represents a claim to ownership in a company. The issuer then creates a whitelist of wallet addresses (typically Ethereum) of investors who are permitted to purchase stock in the company or invest in the concerned security. All individuals on the whitelist must demonstrate that they comply with the restrictions for that specific security.

If you try to trade a security token with a counterparty, the Issuer will check to see if they are whitelisted. If they are, the transaction is completed. If not, it will display an error message and you will be unable to complete the transaction. This is possible through smart contracts, or autonomous contracts on the Blockchain, which give the ability to be automated and transacted with little cost and in a short amount of time. Security tokens, in contrast to the majority of other crypto assets, are not bearer instruments. Because anyone who obtains your Bitcoin private key has the ability to spend your Bitcoin, it is a bearer instrument.

The security token is an electronic representation of the security rather than the security itself, hence cannot be stolen. No one can transfer a token to their wallet unless it is whitelisted; otherwise, they would have gone through KYC/AML and you would have known who they were. Hence, security tokens are well secured.

Types of Security Tokens and their Acceptability

· Equity Tokens  The ownership of an item, like corporate stock or debt, is represented by equity tokens.

· Asset-backed Tokens — This is a blockchain-based token that is linked to a tangible or intangible object of significant value.

· Utility Tokens — Utility tokens give users access to a product or service at a later time. Companies can utilize these to raise funds for blockchain project development.

· Debt Tokens — Debt tokens are the equivalent of a short-term loan with an interest rate based on the amount borrowed by the company. Example — Steem.

How are security tokens transforming the private markets?

Due to limited access, opaque pricing, intermediaries, high minimums of $100K+, limited liquidity choices, time-consuming and burdensome legalities, and other factors, non-institutional investors are unable to have easy and direct access to high-quality private market investment possibilities.

Security tokens allow investors to buy, sell, and swap rights to shares of private corporations using digital tokens, overcoming the problems in the secondary market for private equity. It’s critical that it records, issues, and validates sales all at once. This benefits both existing secondary market investors and makes secondary markets more accessible to a wider group of investors. It ensures transparent ownership and pricing.

A digital token would allow an investor to sell security far more readily than actual shares in a startup (which require notarial acts or intermediaries). We’re talking about a type of investment that combines the safety and security of reality — owing to a stable value represented by a real asset — with the investment simplicity of the blockchain world, which requires no notary deeds or lengthy processes to manage securities, but only a digital wallet! Investing in private markets is as easy as in public markets.

Benefits of Security Tokens

· Improves accessibility to real-world digitized assets

With a total of $256 Tn in real-world assets available globally, asset classes such as fine arts and real estate have numerous opportunities to open up trading spheres and be traded easily and quickly with STOs.

· Enabling Fractional ownership

Security tokens can be used to raise cash for large-scale investments. The value of a costly art collection can be split down into fractions and distributed to a large number of investors using security tokens. The security token investors would benefit from the increase in the value of art collectibles. People can build their portfolios without having to spend a big sum of money since security tokens allow investors to acquire fractions of fine art or collectibles. However, semantics, such as dividing the value into fractional ownership, must be addressed.

· Provides Increased Liquidity

Liquidity is determined by the number of traders (sellers and buyers) in a particular market. Accelerating transactions and fractional ownership through asset tokenization has the potential to increase liquidity by allowing more people to enter the investment space and buy/sell at higher volumes. Security tokens increase liquidity by making it easier to buy and sell in a market or underlying asset that is not available or difficult to buy or sell. Security token offerings are a win-win situation in terms of overall liquidity when it comes to asset classes that were illiquid in nature.

· Transparency

The status of a security token transaction can be tracked from start to finish, and all parties involved have access to an up-to-date golden source of truth on-chain. With an up-to-date record, it reduces record-keeping disputes and the need for parties to reconcile.

· Reduces Cost

Security tokens aim to eliminate intermediaries and simplify investing for investors. Chainiumu, a crowdfunding platform, was created with the sole purpose of connecting investors to investors without the use of go-betweens. In the long run, this will increase accountability and transparency. With an STO, businesses can enable investment through tokenization. Because smart contracts can embed trading restrictions into a token, the cost of an IPO or other securities trading can be significantly reduced.

Major projects in the STO space

· Tezos

BTG Pactual, Latin America’s third-largest investment bank, and Dalma Capital, a Dubai-based asset manager, announced plans to launch security token offerings on the Tezos blockchain in 2019. According to a press release, the banks hope to “address a deal pipeline of more than $1 Bn for existing and prospective token issuances.”

· TZero

tZERO is a technology company whose mission is to democratize access to private capital markets. It is a subsidiary of Medici Ventures, Overstock.com, Inc.’s blockchain-focused wholly-owned subsidiary. tZero was created to provide more legitimacy and oversight to initial coin offerings (ICOs), as well as to allow businesses to create and issue tokenized assets for investors. tZero, unlike other decentralized blockchain platforms, has been designated as an alternative trading system (ATS) and is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).

· Polymath

The platform’s primary goal is to assist traditional financial securities in integrating with blockchain technology. Polymath is based on the fact that tangible assets are being drawn towards being a part of blockchain technology, which is primarily powered by its native token (Poly). Polymath is made up of four core layers that define token creation and adherence to the operating guidelines. These include the Protocol layer, Application layer, Legal layer, and Exchange layer.

In general, the protocol layer is in charge of all platform computation. The application layer, on the other hand, allows users to generate their security tokens. Those who want to create tokens on the forum can get help from the legal layer. Finally, the exchange layer functions more like a closed-end KYC/AML accreditation, providing users with instant liquidity for their assets.

Developments that needs to be catered in the long run

· Wider acceptability

STOs will take time to gain trust due to the poor reputation of ICOs in the market. To be accepted by the mass, major financial institutions must vouch for STOs. This would take some time, even with the security of regulatory requirements. The time has come to impose regulatory requirements that will act as an excellent first line of defense and protect investors.

· Integrating systems and requirements

Companies will be responsible for developing data transport protocols and interfaces, as well as writing and maintaining the existing system architecture. This may necessitate the use of specialized skill sets, which will increase costs in terms of both human resources and system enhancements to interface with SSTO-specific blockchain technologies.

A glimpse of the future

It is clear that significant changes are already taking place in the realm of finance and investing, and many of them have the potential to be beneficial. This is especially true for people who are enthusiastic about blockchain technology and the opportunities it provides. Security Tokens combine blockchain technology with the requirements of regulated securities markets to facilitate asset liquidity and financial accessibility. These tokens are regulated securities that are issued in the form of digital tokens in a blockchain ecosystem. Through automation and “smart contracts,” the blockchain environment promotes securities regulatory objectives of disclosure, fairness, and market integrity, as well as innovation and efficiency. The security token market cap increased by more than 500% in 2020, and the best is yet to come for security token offerings. Securities, which are traded financial assets such as equities, debt, and more, can become even more effective by employing blockchain as a foundation.

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This article has been co-authored by Sayan Mitra and  , who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

Why the crypto industry needs regulation and will it then become safer?

by Sandeep Kumar

Keep up to date with the latest research

 

Money or the currency system has evolved itself over the years. One such system that is raging these days is cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency is basically a virtual currency that is generated and secured through cryptography, making it almost impossible to counterfeit. While the idea of such currency started to establish in the late 1990s, the first actual cryptocurrency came into existence in 2009 with the creation of Bitcoin. Presently, the global cryptocurrency market has hit the $2 Tn mark as of August 2021, and the market is only growing with more awareness and acceptability.

Features that make Cryptocurrency Unique

What makes cryptocurrency unique are its fundamental features. Let us have a look at these, before we understand the crypto market.

 Security — Cryptocurrencies are secured as they consist of cryptography codes. Each owner has a unique set of encrypted codes which are difficult to replicate. The blockchain technology ensures the integrity of transactional data and is an essential part of the system.

 Decentralised — It is not controlled by any central authority. This feature makes crypto immune to the old ways of government control and interference. The system of blockchain record-keeping maintains transaction records and keeps the network transparent.

 Irreversible Transactions — One has to be cautious before initiating crypto transactions as they are irreversible. Once the permission is granted, the transaction will be carried out completely. And due to lack of regulation, no organisation will be able to help in case of wrongly initiated transactions.

 Limited Supply — There are fixed, predefined amounts of cryptocurrency that can be mined. While some miners release a proportion of total supply to ensure price stability, others release all coins at once. With limited supply, the demand for each crypto determines its price. Hence, it can be quite volatile in terms of pricing.

Apart from the above features, Crypto transactions can be processed super-fast, and do not require any physical location, making it easy to use for the people.

Cryptocurrencies that are Leading the Market

Source: Statista

From just 66 crypto-coins, to more than 6000 in 2021, the growing popularity and advancement in technology has led to growth of several currencies. Out of vast number of options available, the following are leading the market presently:

 Bitcoin (BTC) — The first cryptocurrency created in 2009, by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin is the largest cryptocurrency in the world. With a market capitalisation of over $856 Bn, it has witnessed a growth of about 8900% in its price in the last five years.

 Ethereum (ETH) — With a market capitalisation of over $357 Bn, Ethereum is one of the biggest cryptocurrency. It is popular among users particularly due to its usability in crypto-goods and non-fungible tokens (NFT). Launched in 2015, Ethereum has seen a significant growth of over 27000% in the last five years.

 Binance Coin (BNB) — Founded in 2017, Binance Coin currently has a market capitalisation of over $70 Bn. It can be easily used to trade and pay fees on Binance platform which is one of the largest crypto exchange platform in the world. Since its inception, BNB’s price has risen by whooping 419000%.

 Tether (USDT)  Tether is a stable coin with a market capitalisation of over $64 Bn. It is the most consistent crypto-coin as it pegs its value to fiat currency like the US dollar.

Source: statisticsanddata.org

Acceptance Around the World

While most people buy cryptocurrencies to gain from price volatility through speculative investments, they have already started to gain recognition as a payment option in many companies across the world. From big firms like Microsoft, CocaCola, BMW to small businesses and even gig workers, across different industries have already started to accept crypto payments. In case of global companies, transacting in cryptocurrencies serves as an added advantage as they are able to dodge additional 2–3% cost they have to incur while making international payments. However, most businesses are dependent on crypto-exchanges that convert crypto payments into fiat currency, which then goes to the receiving party. Tesla’s announcement of accepting Bitcoin as a direct payment option is considered to be a big move in the favour of crypto acceptability. Such instances rally up the prices of the particular crypto coins.

To make crypto payments more accessible, Bitcoin ATMs have been installed at various places. The United States has the highest number of such ATMs. Compared with the rest of the world, the USA has the most number of businesses accepting crypto payments. In June 2021, El Salvador became the first country to accept Bitcoin as the legal tender. Athena Bitcoin, a provider of crypto ATMs, is investing over $1 Mn to install about 1,500 crypto-ATMs in the country. Such moves indicate the growing acceptability to the new form of currency system around the world.

Dark Side of Cryptocurrencies

Decentralisation is the most important feature of cryptocurrency. There is no official organisation that keeps a record of cryptocurrency. While this provides immunity from government interference, this feature has also led to some negative consequences. Due to lack of regulation and anonymity of transactions, it is used for dark activities and frauds. While the blockchain technology makes it difficult for third parties to access transactions, some hackers may be able to crack the code. Recent times have seen an increase in the number of such thefts. From $4.5 Bn worth of theft in 2019 to $1.7 Bn worth of theft in 2020, the value of crime has decreased but the number of crypto theft jumped by 40% YoY. In August 2021, hackers carried out the biggest ever theft of over $600 Mn in digital coins from token-swapping platform Poly Network, of which hackers returned about half of the amount within a couple of days. This shows the vulnerable side of digital currencies.

Changing Regulatory Scenario

Despite the negative consequences, several countries have started to realise the potential of digital currencies. As a result, governments and organisations are working towards changing the policy scenario to make the crypto market a better place.

The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) puts cryptocurrencies under the securities category, on which security laws are very much applicable. The US is even considering strengthening crypto tax measures that will be beneficial for the government as well. On the other hand, China is trying to tighten crypto activities, primarily through crypto mining regulations. While the regulatory scenario across the world is still in its nascent stage, it is believed that clear regulatory norms would remove significant roadblocks for cryptocurrency.

Divided View on Cryptos — What does its future look like?

There is no doubt that the crypto market has seen significant growth since its birth. It has seen widespread growth in its adoption in various firms-big or small, across the world. And when big names like Elon Musk favour such digital currencies, it immediately rallies its prices to a new high. However, there is a divided view about cryptos among big investors. While it is gaining popularity, some of the big investors in the world, including Warren Buffett are against the idea of crypto, deeming it to be risky and worthless, primarily due to its distinctive features.

But at the same time, with the growth of blockchain technology, governments and organisations have started to realise its importance. Several governments have already started working on creating and amending policies regarding digital currencies that would make it a safer option for investors and will also curb the demerits associated with crypto.

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This article has been co-authored by , who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

The Fault in our Doge

by Sandeep Kumar

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– And why it won’t go to the stars; or the moon; or practically anywhere for its sake

Among the deluge of cryptocurrencies popping up every day, Dogecoin has had the most gala ride in the past few months. The cryptocurrency, which features the ‘Shiba Inus’ dog as its mascot, gained its market cap from $1 Bn in early January to $80 Bn in May. January and May, of the same year! That is insane!

So a basic primer first for all those who don’t know what Dogecoin is.

Dogecoin: Something that started as just a meme.

Dogecoin is basically like Bitcoin (it actually is a fork of Litecoin, which is heavily adopted from Bitcoin) and like most cryptocurrencies, it enables peer-to-peer transactions on a decentralized network. The difference between the two? Bitcoin was a revolutionary technology, the original proof of work concept, based on a blockchain. Many called it the ‘disruptor of the internet’, some considered it a challenge to the global financial system, yet others considered it to be a shift of power from evil global forces to the next-door Joe and6 Jane. Bitcoin was the money of the future.

Dogecoin is just dogecoin, a digital coin, with the picture of a dog on it!

The Dogecoin has been around for much much longer than most think. It was started in 2013 by two engineers, Billy Markus from IBM and Jackson Palmer from Adobe. In their meeting they decided to combine the two phenomena that had taken the world by storm: Bitcoin and Doge, and out came the Dogecoin. Because this is what the guys do when they meet, they build random, open-source, meme-based, cryptocurrency.

The Initial Claim to Fame

The idea was to make an alternative to Bitcoin due to the massive profiteers that had gotten into mining it. Bitcoin, launched in 2008, had failed to achieve what it set out to venture. Dogecoin was expected to change that.

How?

Well, Bitcoin was limited in number, only around 21 million of those can be mined ever. Dogecoin, on the other hand, 10,000 of them can be mined every minute.

The Dogecoin was a hit amongst the crypto geeks. It was mostly used to tip online content creators due to the high speed of transactions, nominal denominations, and low cost of transaction compared to other cryptos like Bitcoin. It was dubbed as a ‘tipcoin’. It is claimed that the trading volume even surpassed the heavyweight Bitcoin for a brief period. In 2017, it crossed the $2 Bn market cap figure, after raising 50,000, USD for a Jamaican bobsled team, raising 30,000, USD for clean water in Kenya, and sponsoring a Nascar. All of this before crashing.

The Dogecoin went unnoticed for years, the original subreddit that had catapulted it to fame silenced, the founders of the coin left, and the code wasn’t even updated.

It was in March 2020 when the Doge had its moment. Serial entrepreneur and influencer Elon Musk threw his support behind Dogecoin and the community, claiming it was ‘inevitable’ and could be ‘the currency at Mars’. He was joined by several others such as Carole Baskin, a big cat rights activist, singer Gene Simmons, bodybuilder Kai Greene, former adult star Mia Khalifa, American rap star Snoop Dogg, etc.

Even with all the love and support that Dogecoin has been getting, let us walk you through the potential faults that hinder its acceptance as a currency of any form.

Founder’s Exit

The Dogecoin is a meme coin, not meant to be taken seriously. Even its founders didn’t. So much so that they abandoned the project long ago. Today merely three part-time developers manage the codebase. This has led to absolutely no tech development taking place in the Dogecoin code base since 2015.

While some view this in the ‘do not take it seriously’ vein, a poorly maintained codebase makes the Dogecoin susceptible to be dislodged by more up-to-date and modern coins. The Dogecoin may be left behind and simply replaced by some other memecoin that catches people’s fancy.

Cyber Attacks, Security Breaches, and Frauds

Due to very little codebase maintenance, Dogecoin has been hacked previously. The Doge Vault was infiltrated and close to 280 million Dogecoin, worth $55k then ($196 Mn today) were stolen along with the credit card information of hundreds of users. While the community almost immediately pooled resources to recover the stolen Doge under the banner, the official statement read this:

“It is believed the attacker gained access to the node on which Doge Vault’s virtual machines were stored, providing them with full access to our systems. It is likely our database was also exposed containing user account information; passwords were stored using a strong one-way hashing algorithm. All private keys for addresses are presumed compromised; please do not transfer any funds to Doge Vault addresses.

If you like to use Dogecoin, you should change your online account passwords and make sure to check your credit card statements frequently for fraudulent or unauthorized purchases. But let’s be serious here; we kind of hope you aren’t investing serious capital into this pseudo-currency. (emphasis added)

That is the official statement.

In 2014 a crypto exchange called Moolah was set up in the UK to handle Dogecoin by Alex Green. Many new doge holders jumped the wagon, while Green continued using the ‘tipcoin’ to make hefty tips. He even sold shares of the exchange as Dogecoins. It wasn’t long before Moolah was shut down, and Green disappeared with the money, who was later found to be Ryan Kennedy, a serial scammer, and rapist.

And not just dogecoin, but even with other cryptocurrencies, several unregulated exchanges spring up one day and take off the next, leaving investors high and dry.

Pump and Dump

Cryptocurrencies aren’t really of any use except mindless trading. The volumes are meager and regulators are absent. This makes them a ripe target for pump and dumps by pumping rings which have existed since the very inception of cryptos.

When the Reddit user /r/wallstreetbets successfully managed to pump the Gamestop stock, the crypto pump rings saw this as the moment that they had been waiting for for years. They saw a gullible audience, that didn’t really know what it was doing, to follow them thinking that they would make a blow against the big guys and have fun doing so.

Needless to say, most stories ended on a bitter note, with several of these gullible traders buying at the peaks when the pump rings sold.

This is what took place on January 28, when a Reddit user decided Dogecoin be the next asset to pump. He was joined by Elon Musk, an obsessive Twitter user. The price of the Dogecoin rocketed up and crashed the next day.

Not just the Dogecoin, but several other cryptocurrencies, all are susceptible to such hostile market manipulation.

Too Volatile to be a global currency

All cryptocurrencies have seen massive volatility. In the image below, bitcoin and ETH are found to be more volatile than the S&P 500 itself. Even as the S&P volatility dies down, the crypto volatility keeps rising.

These are not the characteristics of a stable, fiat currency. What is expected of the currency is to hold its purchasing power stable even over long periods of time, not jump up or down 10% by the time one goes from home to the grocery store.

Poor Hedge Against Inflation

As 0% interest rates or even negative interest rates seem a possibility, bitcoin, among others, is touted as a hedge against inflation. Limited supply cryptos like Bitcoin are positioned as a hedge against this inflationary scenario. Why? Because of its 21 million limits, Bitcoin’s demand vs supply is expected to cause an increase in price as supply decreases.

Even the short history of Bitcoin is not enough to cement its position as a hedge against inflation. Gold on the other hand has had millennia of history of tracking inflation and yet it was susceptible to shocks, manias, and crashes over the shorter term. Bitcoin is no different.

Even in the recent weeks as concerns of inflation pushed the 10 year US treasury yield from 1.34% to 1.62%, bitcoin suffered its worst drop in months. Unlike other inflation hedges, cryptocurrencies’ value is based entirely on other people’s willingness to hold on to it, not on some underlying asset like oil or real estate.

It is fully possible that increasing inflation may lead to an overall recession. The real test of cryptocurrencies will be when investors pull their money from riskier assets like bitcoin or pour more into it.

The infinite supply of Dogecoins

While a few cryptocurrencies do have at least the “limited number” argument in their favor, Dogecoin does not even have that. 10,000 dogecoins can be printed every minute. This rather infinite supply of the dogecoin makes it very hard for it to gain in value.

However, in spite of this structural anomaly in Dogecoin, the prices have soared considerably over the past months.

 

So much for being Decentralised

According to a Wall Street Journal report, the largest holder of Dogecoin owns 28% of the currency! The position is worth at least $2.5 Bn today! The top 10 largest addresses combined hold 43% of the total Dogecoin supply. The idea behind Dogecoin being decentralized simply bites the dust when just 10 wallet holders own 43% of the currency. One major sell-off and the prices crash.

Will the party continue for Dogecoin?

Bears believe that the bubble could burst anytime soon. A game that has a definitive end in the near future. On the other hand, some enthusiasts feel the recent crash is just a minor setback. They still think that it has the potential to grow further in the future.

Can Dogecoin place itself as a reliable money system not limited to any particular state and government? Or will the influencers of crypto just have fun with it for a while and then forget about it for another eternity? Or will Dogecoin ever reach the $1 mark? Probably, Probably Not!

So the final question – whether to invest in this joke or not? Well, be clear about your investment goals first. It’s always a good idea to have a diverse set of investments for your portfolio which are harmless to your risk appetite. So ask yourself this – why do you want to invest in Dogecoin? To make instant money or a fortune that you see forthcoming?

Or maybe launch a crypto coin of your own. That is the sure-shot way to make some quick bucks.

                                                                   – – – – –

This article has been co-authored by Khubaib Abdullah and Yogesh Lakhotia, who are in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital. 

NFT: An Opportunistic Future or a Bubble?

by Sandeep Kumar

Keep up to date with the latest research

An NFT is an on-chain token of an off-chain asset. At the most bare-bones, it is a social contract between the asset creator and the surrounding community.

So, what makes it different from a crypto currency and what is this fuss about non fungibility. An NFT is a digital token that’s like a cryptocurrency but can’t be exchanged for another NFT. This is what makes it non fungible. A bitcoin for a bitcoin, but not one NFT for another. Each NFT is different and unique.

This token is added to a blockchain that supports this special ‘NFT type’ token (such as Ethereum) recording the details of ownership of some commodity, somewhat like how a house deed records the ownership of a house.

The only catch is the commodity, the off-chain asset, must be ownable and somewhat nonfungible. So, you can’t have an NFT on currencies or gold (non-fungibility), nor on Mars or Niagara Falls or the Mona Lisa (unless you own the Mona Lisa of course, then you can do whatever you want, also its highly likely won’t be reading this anyway).

Examples of NFTs Trades: 

  • Digital Art: The $590,000 selling of the famous Nyan Cat Gif, for example, could have only happened because of the meme’s enormous success over the years. 
  • Sports Collectibles: Similarly, the NBA’s highest-selling NFT was a highlight reel of LeBron James, which sold for $200,000. Less well-known players, on the other hand, had reels that sold for as little as $9.
  • Tweets: In March, Jack Dorsey’s original tweet sold for $2.5 Million, paving the way for more similar deals.

Why all this chatter on NFT then?

Because NFT allows storing more data per block. Bitcoin blocks allow only 1MB of data for example, just enough to record a bunch of transactions and some other details. 

This single feature elevates the NFT from more than just a ledger that records transactions (essentially what a cryptocurrency is) to record/store the ownership of pretty much anything such as jpeg files, music files, videos, internet domains, real estate, vintage cars, in-game purchases, art pieces, ad spaces, unlisted shares, horses, just anything.

So just to make things clear, if you are an artist, this is an easy way to monetize your work securely. NFTs also allow a share to the artist each time the NFT changes hands.

As a buyer, which you most likely are, you can buy NFTs of an autograph or highlight reels of an upcoming sports star that you think may strike it big. If in case that happens, it is likely the value of the NFT would have climbed manifolds.

Role of the community in guaranteeing NFTs

Unlike the fiat currencies that are legally backed by central banks, gold, governments and who knows what, a particular NFT only falls back on its scarcity to back it up (the other two tenets of an NFT are its utility and authenticity, both of which are not as effective as an NFTs scarcity is). The ploy of scarcity is a delicate one. The artist or NFT holder may not be able to enforce his ownership, may not get any special rights to own it, may very simply be fooled into buying that NFT or the creator may break its promise. It is the community however that enforces scarcity and hence values it. The creator of the NFT has no say in it.

The value of the NFT comes not from the NFT or the art or the off chain assets that it brings on the chain, it is the NFT and on chain assets’ community and its interactions that hold and/or derive value. It is not the NFT, but the community that is holding value. Most NFTs are worthless, but a few NFTs are focal points of creators and admirers both. Call it a digital bandstand or an art gallery if you wish. 

NFT “An Opportunistic Future”

  • NFT can be a new revenue stream for gaming, sports, art and technology.
  • Like Decentraland, NFTs can transform our attitudes toward ownership and make it possible to own a real-world asset that’s thousands of miles away.
  • Many crypto unknowns could introduce cryptocurrencies for the very first time through NFTs.

Risk associated with NFT

  • It may end up like the initial ICO (initial coin offering) craze as people’s attention shifted to other technology and the space cooled down.
  • What may seem like a hot commodity today may not be as so in the future as seen in the case of Jack Dorsey’s tweet.  
  • Complaints of several pieces of art being stolen and purchased as NFTs leaving the original art creators with no proof of their work.
  • NFT owners must also trust that the maker will not produce another batch of tokens with nearly identical artwork, devaluing the NFT they paid for.

Why the craze of NFT holds despite the associated risk? 

NFTs can be called collectibles. People buy paintings or any other kind of physical art for the same purpose. Utility, authenticity, and scarcity are typically the driving factors behind their demand. 

The obvious one is utility. People are willing to pay for an NFT ticket because it helps them to attend a meeting. Alternatively, they are more likely to purchase art if they can view it in a virtual environment. They’re also willing to spend money on an object that gives them unique abilities in a game. The definition of authenticity explains how an NFT works. What was the source of it? Who has owned it previously? Finally, Leonardo Da Vinci’s famous painting “The Mona Lisa” better describes scarcity. There may exist millions of copies, yet there’s only one original Mona Lisa.

The big player of the NFT market

OpenSea is the first and largest marketplace for user-owned digital goods, which include collectibles, gaming items, domain names, digital art, and other assets backed by a blockchain-based in New York. The number of unique participants after the bubble of 2018 has grown steadily from 8,500 accounts in February of 2018 to over 20,000 accounts in December of 2019. The market is driven by a core group of power users. On OpenSea, the median seller has sold $71.9 worth of stuff, whereas the average seller has sold $1,178 worth of stuff, indicating a large number of power sellers.

Market sentiments and perception

The market for non-fungible tokens is quite small (yet). It is also harder to measure than cryptocurrencies due to the lack of spot prices. Focussing only on secondary trading volume (peer-to-peer sales of NFT, not the creation of NFTs) as an indicator of market size the current secondary market is expected to be roughly $2 – $3 Million USD in volume per month on average.

The total trading volume of non-fungible token (NFT) artwork hit an all-time high of $8.2 Million in December 2020 compared to $2.6 Million in November 2020.

It might sound like a gold rush right now, but the main question is how long will value be produced in all of these new forms if the supply is unlimited? And what would be the most prudent position to take?  A good way to get a piece of the action, yet to stay unharmed is to service the bubble, not to take part in it. Case in point: do now what Levi’s or Wells Fargo did then. NFTs will tokenize everything. It won’t be long before off chain assets get on the blockchains. All valuable assets will then be stored on a decentralised digital ledger, with the NFT being a token of digital representation of an object or person on the chain.

 

This article has been co-authored by Sayan Mitra and Khubaib Abdullah, who are in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

Wall Street’s dream week, crazy week for the IPO market

by tradmin

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“U.S. IPOs are having a busy week as 21 companies are expected to price their offerings raising more than $10 billion combined in the coming weeks.”

23 new IPOs were listed at NYSE and Nasdaq combined, making it one of busiest week in Wall street in last few years. Wall street is for visionaries, people who can look forward and measure up the market moves. It’s not for people Reminiscing the past and wallowing in its sorrow. Corona pandemic was past and the recovering economy, potential successful vaccine and rising sentiments among investors are already showing signs. Wall street has always been front runner and rightly so. The last week has seen crazy amount of IPO activity in the market and many more billion-dollar companies are soon to follow.

Snowflake’s share soared on the first day of trading with its valuation doubled from $33 Bn to over $70bn, making its initial public offering the largest ever for a software firm. Snowflake is a cloud computing company, that went public on NYSE on 16th Sep 2020 and raised $3.36 Bn. The overenthusiasm among the investors pushed the first day trading price to $245 — more than double its IPO price — in New York trading. Multiple VC and early stage investors have been able to mint billions of dollars from the IPO. The share got additional traction after the investment interest from Ventures and Berkshire Hathaway.

JFrog a DevOps software development company also went public on 16th Sep 2020 with IPO priced at $44 raising $509 Mn at the company valuation of just about $4 Bn. By end of the day JFrog’s stock soared 47.3%, closing at 64.79. JFrog was reportedly valued at $1.5 billion last year and IPO provided a huge valuation boost to the company. The soaring valuation of the company shows how much the investors are willing to pay for high growing SaaS company.

Unity Software went public with a blockbuster IPO this Friday, with its price jumping 44% by the end of the day. The company raised proceeds of around $1.3 Bn by selling 25 million shares at $52. Its stock raised as high as $76 in early day trading lifting company’s valuation to around $20 Bn. Unity is world famous gaming development studio that is known for hits such as “PokemonGo”, “Call of Duty:mobile” etc. Unity expected its IPO price to be round $34 – $42, but the enthusiasm about the stock among the public helped company go with IPO at $52. Sequoia Capital and Silver Lake were the biggest investors in Unity before the IPO, with Sequoia owning more than 24 per cent. Unity reported loss of $54 Mn this year, even though its revenue is on the rise, reporting $351 Mn earnings last year, 39% up from previous year. Gaming is the fastest growing segment in media category with 2.5 billion gamers worldwide and $140 Bn in revenue which is also consistently rising exponentially.

Sumo Logic: Sumo logic was the third venture backed software company listed this week, on 17th Sep 2020, on the exchange with the price above its anticipated range. The company raised $326 Mn with shares priced at $22, with the day closing at 26.8 a 22% jump in the closing price. Sumo logic is pioneer in continuous Intelligence with applications across digital transformation, cloud computing and analytics. Sumo like many others going public this week has shown solid revenue growth but also equitably growing losses. But the multiple times oversubscription of the company shares and the rising stock price shows the confidence investors have on the company and its growth potential.

Investors are bullish on the market and wall street is riding on the positive wave. Past few weeks have seen strong IPO activity after a long dull period, with 23 new IPO listed on NYSE and Nasdaq just this week. List of IPO listed during this week:

Billions of dollars have changed hands with number of VCs and early stage investors making big exits. Just a month ago when the companies were worried sick about corona and its potential impact on the investments and their portfolio, last few weeks have seen a complete shift in scenario. Sequoia a leading VC was largest owner of Unity, had 8.4% stake in Snowflake and some ownership in Sumo Logic had around $9 Bn worth in these three companies, earning health profits with exits. Many other investors have seen a profitable run and the IPO fever is not expected to end any time soon.

Whatever be the reason, be it the recovering economy from the pandemic, be it the strengthening investor sentiment or be it the escape from the future political uncertainty from elections IPO market is up and running. U.S. IPOs are having a busy week as 21 companies are expected to price their offerings raising more than $10 billion combined in the coming weeks. 

Understanding SPACs Better

by tradmin

Keep up to date with the latest research

“The premise of SPACs relies heavily on the reputation of the SPAC founder – their ability to raise funds from a broad group of shareholders”

We inspect in detail how SPACs work, how has been the performance of SPACs in the past, and whether it is a fad that would fade away soon or meant to stay on.

SPACs are a major movement in the IPO world right now. Over the past few years, firms such as Nikola, Draft King, and Virgin Galactic have all joined the market through SPAC (Special Purpose Acquisition Companies). This has been a record year for SPACs with nearly $34.6 Billion in SPAC gross proceeds so far in 2020. That’s 3-4 times higher than the $12.1 Billion in gross proceeds in 2019 and the $9.7 Billion in 2018, as per Dealogic.

These structures, also known as blank check companies give private firms an alternative to an otherwise costly and time-consuming IPO process, making them hugely successful these days. Some investors see strong potential in SPACs and claim them to be a more effective way for firms to go public, but serious critics suggest they encourage backdoor transactions that are not worth the risk and promote opacity.

How do SPACs work?

SPAC mergers are very similar to a reverse merger. They are generally formed by investors with expertise in a particular industry or business sector to pursue deals in that area. While forming a SPAC, the founders sometimes have at least one acquisition target in mind, but they explicitly don’t identify that target to avoid disclosure requirements needed during IPOs. Hence, the name blank check companies. Many have argued that companies like Nikola and DraftKings wouldn’t have made been able to go through the normal IPO process because of the strict due diligence involved in a typical IPO.

Investors who buy stocks in the IPO have no idea what company they are ultimately going to invest in. They are effectively buying the target company’s IPO in advance (say Virgin Galactic) without knowing the essence of what the target company does and the price that will be paid by the acquiring company (say Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp). It is important to note that these deals will be usually structured in such a way that if the investors don’t like the target company they can get their money back by just backing out of the deal before the merger closes.

Unlike normal belief, SPACs don’t seem to be cheaper than traditional IPOs. They pay underwriters and institutional investors a fee of around 5-6% of the sum raised and gives the founder up to 20% of the shares for free. Even after accounting for the additional cash brought in by SPAC’s sponsors and other friends and family, SPACs aren’t any less expensive than IPOs today.

With a conventional IPO, promoters and directors, and officers sign a lock-in for 180 days from the IPO date. For a SPAC IPO, the standard lock-in period ranges up to one year after the close of the closed merger or De-SPAC deal, subject to early termination of the common stock sell at a fixed price (generally $12 or above) for 20 out of 30 trading days beginning 150 days after the closure of the De-SPAC transaction.

The money earned by the SPAC is deposited into an interest-bearing trust account. The funds are only used to make an acquisition or to refund the capital to stakeholders when the SPAC is liquidated. SPACs normally have two years for getting completed or winding-up. Some instances include the SPAC’s working capital being funded by the interest received from the trust. Following the acquisition completion, a SPAC is listed on one of the prominent stock exchanges.

In our opinion, the fees and structure for SPACs would continue to whittle down and can become better than IPOs where bankers have created high-cost structures. Our primary concern is all-around compliance, investor rights’ protection, initial and ongoing disclosures, and scrutiny that make it safer for the general public to invest through an IPO. Unless SPACs can match IPOs in terms of transparency and reporting and third-party scrutiny (analysts industry experts), they will continue to be the domain of a small bunch of fund managers and institutions engaged in dodgy financial engineering. As the overall crypto industry has realized that being regulated has its benefits, SPACs will need to evolve to have the same or better standards than IPOs.

The biggest SPAC deals made thus far

Pershing Square Tontine made waves in the rapidly growing SPAC space with its July debut. The firm raised $4 Billion with its IPO, a record for such investment vehicles and a new sign of Wall Street’s obsession with SPACs. The stock is currently trading at a share price of $23.90.

Churchill Capital Corp III, and MultiPlan Inc. entered into an agreement to merge in a deal worth $11 Billion that will take the U.S. healthcare services firm public. The deal will expand MultiPlan’s data analytics platform and is the largest SPAC merger ever. The merged company will be listed on NYSE and will operate under the name MultiPlan.

MultiPlan will receive up to $3.7 Billion of new equity that will reduce the firm’s debt. The transaction includes $1.3 Billion worth of common stock at $10 a share and $1.3 Billion in convertible debt that will be convertible at $13 per share.

Blackstone-owned Vivint is also one of the biggest corporations to enter into a SPAC arrangement since the IPO. Blackstone had explored an IPO or sale of the technology company and ended up merging with a SPAC raised by SoftBank’s Fortress Investment Group, in a deal valued at $5.6 Billion including debt.

 

The SPAC and PE camaraderie

The SPAC burst is taking place at a time when trillions of dollars are sitting in private equity and venture capital funds. For institutional buyers, SPACs serve as an incentive to buy into glittering businesses that would otherwise stay private. Analysts claim that these cash shell structures remain a lousy gamble for average investors. The majority trades at less than $10-$12 per share, the regular price at which SPACs first sell their stock to the public.

For private equity funds, they have a strong economic interest in the company due to less upfront spending. A private equity fund financing a SPAC typically purchases between 2% and 3% of the shares on the public listing, more often by buying businesses via SPACs to pay down their obligations more efficiently.

For 21% of the founders of SPACs, an institution is either linked to a private equity fund or one of the managers is operating a private equity portfolio simultaneously.

 

Why are SPACs so popular now when they have been around since the 1980s?

In the 1980s, SPACs acquired a shady reputation tied to penny stock frauds. In the past two decades, new laws and regulations helped add credibility to bolster investor confidence. SPACs have an appeal to private companies that wish to go public in this volatile environment because SPACs guarantee the transaction at a certain valuation as opposed to the IPO which are seen as riskier and may or may not go through once documents are publicly filed. For example, WeWork’s IPO got scuttled once it published its details and intense scrutiny of the company led investors to back out.

It can take months for companies to negotiate pricing, file documents, get necessary approvals and then finally list on stock exchanges SPACs have an edge here where companies can work with stakeholders that understand them well and can conclude transactions quickly. Given the long timelines associated with an IPO, the valuation of the underlying company can also take a nosedive.

IPOs require significant private information to be made available to the general public for scrutiny. A large number of companies, especially tech companies are uncomfortable disclosing such details and may instead want to go through the SPAC structure which has lower disclosure requirements.

Businesses going public through SPACs in 2020 have had higher valuation and share price growth than traditional IPOs; in September, United Wholesale Mortgage went public in the latest SPAC transaction with a valuation of over $16 Billion.
With the quality of management teams improving, SPACs are gaining traction and more institutional investors and HNIs are buying in. With SPAC funds getting bigger, the scale of blank check deals is also expected to increase.

A lot needs to be done before SPACs go mainstream

One of the biggest issues is that firms going public via SPACs can afford to bypass critical oversight and intense scrutiny, unlike conventional IPOs. For example – Nikola, who went public via the SPAC a few months ago has turned out to be the focus on multiple allegations lately. Federal authorities have since begun to pose questions and the SEC is also investigating how SPACs report their ownership and how compensation is related to the purchase.

Investors are at greater risk compared to IPOs as they do not know the target investee company at the time of investment.

SPACs may prove to be quite expensive. In certain blank-check transactions, the founders of SPAC have the right to purchase 20% of the resulting public business at rock-bottom valuation. For example, initial shareholders of Social Capital got 20% of the Company at $0.002 per founder per share while the public shareholders got the remaining 80% at $10 per share.

Target firms also give up more power as they sell to a SPAC that has its operating staff in place. They are therefore subject to a vote and control by the owners of the SPAC. This can lead to deal cancelations even after the announcement. 

Analyzing the performance of previous SPACs 

We analyzed 50 SPAC merger deals that happened between 2015-2019 and how they are faring now. Are they profitable, what share price are they at now and how does the valuation look like? Look at the table attached in Annexure I for the detailed analysis.

While Nikola Corporation has been the biggest loser after its SPAC merger closed, its valuation has dropped by more than 50%, and currently stands at $7.14 Billion. The biggest gainers have been in the healthcare segment, financial services, analytics, and consumer goods. For Immunovant and AdaptHealth in the healthcare segment, the valuations have soared by more than 85%. For SaaS firms like Clarivate Plc, the valuation leap has been a colossal $5.7 Billion. Open Lending Corp which focuses on lending now has a share price of $26.12 with a valuation higher by 80% than its SPAC price.

The underlying fact is although some good names get benefitted from the SPAC route, total losses outnumber profitable SPACs. The majority of companies have not been able to perform well. Talking about the 50 deals that we analyzed, 37 of them (74% of total) now have current share price trading at less than $10 per share with a current average market capitalization of less than $250 Million. The number further disappoints as 40% of those firms end up with share prices trading at less than $5 in the stock market.

Upcoming SPACs

On 7th October, Momentus Inc. reported its intent to sign a merger agreement with Stable Road Acquisition Corp Momentus offers a “last mile delivery” service for spacecraft, with a transfer vehicle that helps deliver satellites from a rocket to a specific orbit. The merging business entity will be named Momentus Inc. after termination of the deal and its shares are to be listed under the ticker symbol “MNTS” on Nasdaq.

This merger will create the first publicly traded space infrastructure company. Strategic partners and clients include Lockheed Martin and veterans like SpaceX and NASA. The combined company will have an estimated valuation of approximately $1.2 Billion following transaction close in January 2021.

Post-merger Momentus will have approximately $310 Million in cash on the balance sheet, to be funded by Stable Road’s $172.5 Million of cash held in trust (assuming no redemptions) and $175 Million from a fully committed common stock PIPE at $10 per share, including investments from private equity growth investors, family offices and niche top-tier public institutional investors.

Will SPACs fare in the long run?

Bill Ackman’s SPAC which recently raised $4 Billion for his Pershing Square Tontine Holdings is by far the largest SPAC ever raised. There will be no founder’s stake in the company saving up on huge SPAC fees. If the SPAC succeeds in taking a large private company public – this will be the best proof of concept for the SPAC structure.

The premise of SPACs relies heavily on the reputation of the SPAC founder – their ability to raise funds from a broad group of shareholders. A blank check company is a testament to the faith that the investors have in that person’s ability to find and execute a good deal. We believe that the future of blank check companies remains doubtful. Investors find SPAC deals as a better way to go public, while critics argue that the SPAC boom is just a trend that isn’t destined to last in the long run.

This article has been co-authored by Sargam Palod, who is an Investment Analyst at Torre Capital.

 

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